IMMUNE SYSTEM – anti-inflammatory cannabinoid formula


IMMUNE SYSTEM – cannabinoid formula for immune system support, 600 mg cannabinoids

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Application of cannabinoids and terpenes for joint health and an adequate immune response

Even at first glance, the immune system and endocannabinoid system (ECS) have a lot in common. They are both complicated systems and their role is to protect our body. Immune system is specialized in protection against bacteria, viruses, and parasites while ECS protects us from anything that can threaten our biochemistry. In order for our body to function correctly, both systems must work together well. It is known that immune cells have the most CB2 receptors on their surface: most of them are present on B lymphocytes, but a large number of CB2 receptors are also present on natural killer (NK) cells, as well as on monocytes, neutrophils, cytotoxic T cells, and helper T cells. A number of receptors these cells have in a certain moment depends on the pathogen as well as cells’ activation status. The effects of anandamide, the primary endocannabinoid, on the immune system are interesting. Studies have shown that even in low dosages anandamide inhibits division of the T and B lymphocytes and triggers their death – apoptosis – namely a form of programmed cell death which temporarily reduces the capacity of the immune response.

At first glance, it seems that this is not good for our health, but knowing that anandamide is a SOS molecule, it is clear that in acute situations a perfectly functioning immune system is not a priority. If we meet a tiger on safari, a perfect immune system is not important at that moment. It is only important to be fast, and for that we need a lot of energy. Here is another important factor that numerous studies do not reveal clearly enough: endocannabinoids are short-term molecules. They break down as soon as they trigger an SOS signal. Therefore, they do not remain in our bodies for as long as in the lab tests and not in the same concentrations.

The fact that cannabinoids temporarily inhibit immune system functioning, is only a part of the truth. Their effects are much more complicated. Cannabinoids as signalling molecules protect our biochemical balance and it is difficult to simulate the complexity and interplay of the immune and endocannabinoid systems in laboratory experiments, which makes the proper interpretation of the findings all the more important. Findings must always be understood in the frame within which the experiments and measurements were made.

Cannabinoids activate their anti-inflammatory effects in peripheral tissues, including joints, via activation of the CB2 receptors. The result is a reduction in cytokine production and immune cell mobilisation, and an overall reduction in tissue inflammation. Also, the CB1 receptor antagonism ensures anti-inflammatory effects by increasing β2-adrenergic signalling in joints and secondary lymphoid organs. Cannabidiol has shown antiarthritic effects that are independent of cannabinoid receptors. In addition to reducing inflammation, cannabinoids also reduce joint pain by activating central and peripheral CB1 receptors, peripheral CB2 receptors, and other targets.

  1. Cannabidiol or CBD

Studies have shown that CBD is systemically efficient as an anti-inflammatory molecule. It decreases inflammation in all body tissues and modulates immune response, so there are fewer inflammatory cytokines in the body. Even by applying it topically on inflamed joints, it exhibits anti-inflammatory action. Gel form of CBD was well absorbed and decreased inflammation, swelling, hypersensitivity of joints, and pain. Oral CBD application very efficiently stops arthritis progression and protects joints from further damage. They have also established that CBD was particularly effective when used in the early stages of arthrosis (wear and tear of joints), as it prevented the nerve damage and pain commonly associated with the disease. Animal experiments have also confirmed that CBD has an important preventive role in arthrosis. When rats were given CBD in the laboratory as a preventive measure and they caused arthrosis in them, there was little or no inflammation or pain.

  1. Cannabidiolic Acid or CBDA

CBDA has a wide range of effects that are important in joint health and flexibility, as well as immune response. It is proven to reduce swelling and it has a strong anti-inflammatory effect. CBDA is important in chronic inflammations that are usually accompanied by chronic pain and hyperalgesia, or hypersensitivity to pain stimuli. CBDA has not been studied so well from the perspective of all effects and mechanisms. However, clinical practice and patients’ experience have shown that CBDA is of a key importance when it comes to states related to inflammatory processes and improper immune response (allergies, autoimmune diseases, or weak immune response).

  1. Cannabigerol or CBG

CBG has significant effects on immune system. It binds to several receptor types, both cannabinoid receptors, is an antagonist of TRPV8 and an agonist of TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPA1, TRPV3, TRPV4, and α2-adrenoceptors. The immune system performs its protective role by regulating two opposing pathways, known as the “Th1” and “Th2” responses. Th1 response includes inflammatory reactions responsible for killing intracellular parasites and increases autoimmune response (interferon gamma etc.). Excessive inflammatory responses can lead to uncontrolled tissue damage. Therefore, we have developed a mechanism to prevent this. Th2 response is related to anti-inflammatory and allergic reactions (interleukins 4, 5, 10, 13 etc.). If Th2 response is too strong, it prevents microbicidal action of the Th1 response. The most suitable scenario is, of course, a well-balanced Th1 and Th2 response, suitable for current immune response. CBG is good at balancing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in order to reach a balance which in most cases of inflammatory diseases means a reduction of inflammation. Cannabinoids are important homeostatic modulators of the immune system and as such have enormous medical potential. A combination of CBD and CBG is especially efficient which has been proven in studies and clinical practice to be extremely effective in reducing inflammation, swelling, and pain.

  1. Turmeric

Turmeric contains the active ingredient curcumin, which is from traditional Eastern medicine known as a powerful anti-inflammatory substance. A study was carried out on volunteers with the knee osteoarthritis, and after one month of taking curcumin 94% of the participants reported more than 50% improvement in their knee. Turmeric has been used in nutrition and is considered very safe. It is categorized as GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe). Curcumin efficiency has been established in osteoarthritis, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia because its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action regulates the immune response and limits inflammatory processes.

  1. Black pepper essential oil

Black pepper essential oil contains an active ingredient called piperine. This substance has several well studied effects on a body. In various research models of inflammatory diseases, it has been established to reduce pain and swelling, and to improve blood circulation. In animal models of arthritis, it has clearly proven to be a potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-arthritic molecule. Moreover, piperine is a known bioenhancer – a substance that improves the bioavailability/absorption of a wide range of molecules, including CBD and curcumin.

Author: Tanja Bagar, PhD

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10ml, 30ml

Science on immune system

Pomen kanabinoidov in terpenov za imunski sistem

Imunski sistem si lahko predstavljamo kot mrežo številnih organov, tkiv in celic. Začne se v kostnem mozgu, prožnem tkivu znotraj kosti, kjer nastajajo matične hematopoetske celice. Iz teh nezrelih matičnih celic zorijo vse imunske celice. Poleg kostnega mozga je primarni imunski organ še timus (priželjc), kjer zorijo limfociti T. Sekundarni imunski organi pa so vranica, limfni sistem in bezgavke, žrelnica, nebnici, koža in jetra. Tu se imunske celice srečujejo s patogeni in se borijo proti njim. V imunski odziv je vključeno celotno telo. Poleg organov imunskega sistema ima telo veliko celic s specifičnimi imunskimi vlogami.

Vsi se rodimo s prirojeno imunostjo, ki nudi splošno in nespecifično zaščito. Vključuje kožo in sluznice, ki so prva obrambna linija pri preprečevanju vstopa patogenov v telo. Prednost prirojenega imunskega odgovora je v tem, da se odzove zelo hitro in v polnem razmahu, ne glede na to, ali se z določenim mikrobom srečamo prvič, ali smo se že mnogokrat. Prirojeni imunski odgovor vključuje vnetni odziv, proizvodnjo citokinov, aktivacijo določenih imunskih celic kot so fagociti, bazofilci, mastociti in eozinofilci.

Poleg prirojenega poznamo še specifični imunski odgovor (denimo tvorba protiteles), ki traja od nekaj dni do celo nekaj tednov (odvisno od patogena). Ta imunost se razvija skozi vse življenje. Temelji na limfocitih in se razvije, ko smo izpostavljeni mikrobom ali pa cepljeni. Poznamo pasivno in aktivno imunost. Pasivna imunost pomeni, da si jo na nek način »izposodimo« od drugod, in deluje le kratek čas. Na primer, protitelesa v materinem mleku nudijo dojenčku začasno imunost na bolezni, ki jih je mati že prebolela, kar pomaga zaščititi otroka pred okužbo v zgodnjih letih otroštva. Aktivna imunost pa se razvije, kadar smo sami neposredno izpostavljeni patogenom ali njihovim antigenom. To je dolgoročna imunost in se pridobi z aktivacijo limfocitov B in T, sodelujejo pa tudi citokini. Med pridobljenim imunskim odgovorom se oblikujejo posebne spominske celice, ki si zapomnijo specifični patogen, in če smo mu ponovno izpostavljeni, imunski sistem reagira veliko hitreje.

Vsak imunski sistem je drugačen. Zdi se, da nekateri ljudje nikoli ne zbolevajo, drugi pa so bolni kar naprej. Načeloma imajo odrasli ljudje bolj razvit in uspešnejši imunski sistem, ker so v življenju prišli v stik z več mikrobi. A to ni pravilo, saj na imunski odziv vpliva veliko dejavnikov in za učinkovit imunski odgovor se morajo odviti številni procesi ob pravem času in na pravem mestu.

Vse več raziskav kaže, da je vnetje del večine kroničnih bolezni, tudi malignih. Porušen oz. neustrezen imunski odgovor je del patološkega procesa mnogih vnetnih in avtoimunih bolezni. Revmatoidni artritis je kronična vnetna avtoimuna sistemska bolezen. Je najpogostejša izmed revmatskih vnetnih bolezni. Lahko se pojavi v vsaki starosti, pogosteje zbolevajo ženske. Prevalenca bolezni je 1% in se veča s starostjo, po 55. letu se približuje 2-5%.

Avtorica teksta: doc. dr. Tanja Bagar

Na splošno je oralna absorpcija kanabinoidov zelo nizka. Le približno 3-10% zaužitih kanabinoidov doseže kri. Na absorpcijo CBD pomembno vplivata dva dejavnika: različna presnova pri vsakem posamezniku in absorpcijski potencial CBD-olja (najvišjega ima CBD olje polnega spektra z zadostno količino CBDa, najnižjega pa izolirani CBD).

Vsak posameznik mora sam najti ustrezen peroralni odmerek kanabinoidne formulacije. Priporočamo, da začnete s samo 2-3 mg (1-2 kapljicami) in povečujete dnevni odmerek za kapljico ali dve. Bolniki s hudimi težavami potrebujejo odmerke do 100 mg dnevno. Običajni dnevni odmerek je med 15-30 mg. Kanabinoidno formulacijo nakapate pod jezik in ga tam zadržite minuto, lahko tudi dlje. Del CBD-ja se bo absorbiral skozi kapilare pod jezikom in njegov učinek se zazna že po približno 15 minutah. Nato CBD kapljice pogoltnete. Po zaužitju traja približno eno uro in pol, da doseže CBD svojo najvišjo raven v krvi. Učinek CBD-ja počasi izzveni v 4-8 urah po zaužitju.

Absorpcijo kanabinoidov lahko občutno izboljšamo, če jih zaužijemo po obroku, zlasti takšnem, ki je bogat z maščobami.

Pomembno: kanabinoidi inhibirajo (upočasnijo) delovanje jetrne encimske skupine CYP450, ki presnavlja številna zdravila. Na splošno to povzroči višjo raven teh zdravil v krvi. To morate upoštevati in se pogovoriti s svojim zdravnikom, da bo prilagodil (verjetno znižal) odmerek zdravila. Pri količinah do 30 mg kanabinoidov (cca 15 kapljic) do resnejše interakcije z večino zdravil še ne prihaja.